Edenmal

Sysadmin Garden of Eden

Docker for Admins - Workshop v2

Table of Contents
  1. 1. Goal of the Workshop
  2. 2. Heads up - “Blogger” Words
  3. 3. Group Partition Schema
  4. 4. Special details
    1. 4.1. “What’s in the f*cking box?!”
      1. 4.1.1. Why is the VM running Fedora?
  5. 5. README
  6. 6. Intro: Container and Microservices
    1. 6.1. Why do people like the Docker-“Principle”?
    2. 6.2. Micro-what? Microservices!
    3. 6.3. Container?!
  7. 7. Prepare for the Docker Madness
    1. 7.1. Side Notes
    2. 7.2. System “Requirements”
    3. 7.3. Docker Engine Installation
    4. 7.4. docker-compose Installation
    5. 7.5. Clone the workshop repo
  8. 8. Running your first Docker containers
    1. 8.1. Hello World!
    2. 8.2. Basic commands you need to know
    3. 8.3. Starting the MySQL database server
      1. 8.3.1. Let’s give it a name (BTW Can we keep it?)
      2. 8.3.2. Does the container keep on running or do I need something like screen or what?!
      3. 8.3.3. How would one configure the MySQL database server instance?
      4. 8.3.4. How do I save the database outside the container?
      5. 8.3.5. Running the MySQL database server container
    4. 8.4. Starting the WordPress instance
      1. 8.4.1. How can the WordPress container and the MySQL container communicate with each other?
      2. 8.4.2. How can I reach the WordPress instance from the outside?
      3. 8.4.3. Running the WordPress instance container
  9. 9. How do you execute a command/shell inside the container?
  10. 10. Data, Data everywhere
    1. 10.1. Volumes aka Mounts
    2. 10.2. Data containers aka --volumes-from
  11. 11. Networking
    1. 11.1. NATing using iptables
    2. 11.2. Over seven bridges you must go (docker0 bridge and veth interfaces)
    3. 11.3. Network “modes” (“default”, host or other)
    4. 11.4. Publishing ports
    5. 11.5. Looking into your network
  12. 12. Limiting container resources
    1. 12.1. CPU Limit
    2. 12.2. Memory and Swap Limit
  13. 13. Selfies? I mean Images
    1. 13.1. Image Names explained
    2. 13.2. What have Layer Cakes to do with Docker Images?
    3. 13.3. Dockerfile examples
      1. 13.3.1. Simple Dockerfile Example
      2. 13.3.2. Advanced Dockerfile Example
    4. 13.4. Understanding Dockerfiles
    5. 13.5. Commands you need to know when working with Docker images
      1. 13.5.1. Deleting a Docker image
      2. 13.5.2. Build a Docker image from Dockerfile
    6. 13.6. Let’s build your first Docker image
    7. 13.7. How can this help in the development workflow?
  14. 14. Composing containers made simple with docker-compose
    1. 14.1. Making multi container applications simpler to start
    2. 14.2. Starting our multi container applications with one command
    3. 14.3. Basic docker-compose commands
      1. 14.3.1. Stopping all containers run by the current docker-compose file
      2. 14.3.2. Deleting all containers run by the current docker-compose file
      3. 14.3.3. Restarting all container started by the current docker-compose file
    4. 14.4. Let’s play more with docker-compose!
    5. 14.5. Summary of these sections
  15. 15. Orchestration Tools
    1. 15.1. A wild Docker Swarm appeared. Kubernetes used rolling-update. It was very effective.
    2. 15.2. Other Orchestration Tools
  16. 16. Kubessar - Glossar but for Kubernetes
    1. 16.1. Namespace
    2. 16.2. Pod (po)
    3. 16.3. Replication Controller (rc)
    4. 16.4. Service (svc)
    5. 16.5. Other “Objects”
  17. 17. Kubernetes
    1. 17.1. Kubernetes Features
      1. 17.1.1. The iptables rules will blow your mind
      2. 17.1.2. You have some Network Volumes?
      3. 17.1.3. And there are even more features!
  18. 18. kubectl - Our tool to deploy them all
    1. 18.1. The Basics of kubectl
      1. 18.1.1. List objects
      2. 18.1.2. Gather information about one or more object(s)
      3. 18.1.3. Create one or more object(s)
      4. 18.1.4. Delete one or more object(s)
      5. 18.1.5. Execute command inside a Pod’s container
      6. 18.1.6. View the logs of a Pod’s container
    2. 18.2. Advanced kubectl usage
      1. 18.2.1. Update the Pods of a Replication Controller during runtime
      2. 18.2.2. Scaling running Replication Controller
  19. 19. Deploy your own Kubernetes cluster
    1. 19.1. Install Ansible
    2. 19.2. Create the cluster inventory file for the deployment
    3. 19.3. Deploying the Kubernetes cluster
    4. 19.4. Summary of the Kubernetes deployment
    5. 19.5. Test the Kubernetes cluster health
    6. 19.6. Take a look at the pre-installed kube-system containers
      1. 19.6.1. Kubernetes own Dashboard
      2. 19.6.2. Monitoring the nodes and containers (with Heapster and Grafana)
      3. 19.6.3. All Container logs in one place with an ELK stack
  20. 20. Deployments with Kubernetes
    1. 20.1. BusyBox Pod Example
    2. 20.2. WordPress and MySQL Pod Example
  21. 21. Your turn, let’s deploy the Guestbook application
    1. 21.1. Run the Guestbook
    2. 21.2. Test the Guestbook
    3. 21.3. Shutdown one node
  22. 22. Write your own “deployment files”
    1. 22.1. WordPress + MySQL - WIP
  23. 23. Have fun with your Kubernetes cluster!
  24. 24. The End
  25. 25. Solutions for “Tests”
    1. 25.1. nginx Dockerfile
    2. 25.2. WordPress and MySQL docker-compose.yml

Goal of the Workshop

The workshop is going to show how simple it is to use Docker and why it is worth a thought to implement it into your development workflow.
The second topic is how to compose containers with docker-compose.
The last part is about the container orchestration tool Kubernetes by Google. As part of this you are going to create a Kubernetes cluster and you take a look at the internal services of Kubernetes and deploy applications on top of it.

Heads up - “Blogger” Words

Group Partition Schema

Two groups ore more should be good. Per group at least two or more people.
Every group works on their own Kubernetes cluster.
If there are people that aren’t as “advanced”, they can play around with Docker Swarm (No tutorial provided in this post!).

Special details

A prepared VirtualBox Image will be given around on an USB stick, during the preparation of the workshop.
The VM Username is workshop and so is the password.

“What’s in the f*cking box?!”

Fedora 23 with Docker and Cockpit enabled.
Cockpit is enabled, so I can simply help and also monitor the VMs, if a problem occurs.
Firewalld removed, Iptables cleared and persistence disabled.

Why is the VM running Fedora?

That’s simple. It is up to date, not like Debian :P
Yes, up to date doesn’t makes it more stable, but I never had a problem yet and having the latest version of packages is often just awesome, because of improvements or new features.


README


RTFM before asking

If you don’t know any further, add --help to the command, to get a help page that should guide you to your goal or use man INSERT_COMMAND_HERE to show the man(ual) page for the given command. If you can’t solve your problem feel free to ask me.

There are no dumb questions, but please don’t ask them. Okay?
Alexander Trost


Intro: Container and Microservices

Why do people like the Docker-“Principle”?

The Docker-“Principle” is simpleness. Making it as simple as possible to for example starting a WordPress instance with database server with only two commands (or one command using docker-compose).
Simpleness that almost everybody, with a little knowledge about using a shell or cmd, could do it. That’s what makes Docker great and bad again, because there are a lot of people that have little to no knowledge about “basic” troubleshooting. I had open issues, because of people A) not RTFM, B) No knowledge about how to troubleshoot problems on their own first.

Overall Docker is an awesome tool, that is more and more growing with each release and with all the awesome open source applications for Docker like Kubernetes, Flocker, Weave and many more.

Micro-what? Microservices!

Microservices are small gears, like a MySQL database, NoSQL database, Redis, etc., for a big application like Redmine, Gitlab, etc.
They allow you to test local in a small scale and then scale with your load (if done right).

Container?!

Currently Docker containers can (and will) only allow you to run any distribution that runs on Linux. NO WINDOWS or other bullshit!
Every container runs in it’s own namespace. For this we need to understand how namespaces work.
A namespace is a separated “branch”, where processes, mounts, etc. can exist without disturbing other processes, mounts, etc. in other namespaces.

An advantage of namespaces is, that you can limit the cpu, memory, network, etc. for them. For example, a process that goes rogue, can be limited to specific resource limits.

This diagram should make it clear, how namespaces can create “unlimited” separated and isolated container environments.


Linux cgroups namespaces hierachy - by Shmuel Csaba Otto Traian
This photo (original) is made by Shmuel Csaba Otto Traian, licensed under the CC Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.

Docker and most other containerization utilities not only use namespaces to separate containers from each other. There are several other techniques, that further improve security.

A container uses the existing Linux kernel, there are less resources used, because a container just uses the existing kernel processes and doesn’t need to spawn them like when using a virtual machine.

Why is it a good idea to use separate namespaces for networked applications? Because if someone breaches for example your webserver, he is just in the container and not on the host server. If you’ll then detect the breach, you just stop the container and would restart it with an updated image version that contains the latest webserver software.

TL;DR A container is NOT a VM. A container is a “separate” Linux system, that runs in an isolated namespaced environment of the running kernel on the running kernel.


Prepare for the Docker Madness

TASK setup101

Side Notes

System “Requirements”


The System Requirements are too damn high Meme

Nope, they’re not!

You can run Docker under any kernel 3.16+, but I recommend you to use the latest kernel for the implemented improvements in some of the file system and network systems Docker uses.

Docker Engine Installation

If you use the workshop VM, you can skip this section.

To install the Docker Engine run the command:

curl -sSL https://get.docker.com/ | sh

For a more details about the installation of the Docker Engine, see the Linux installation docs or the Windows installation docs.

When talking about Docker, we almost always talk about the Docker Engine. Because the Docker Engine is, as the name implies, the engine for the containers.

After you have installed it without any errors popping up, you have to start the Docker Engine.
When your distribution is using systemd:

systemctl enable docker.service
systemctl start docker.service

On distribution without systemd:

/etc/init.d/docker start

This starts Docker and when using systemd enables the autostart for Docker Engine.

docker-compose Installation

If you use the workshop VM, you can skip this section.


docker-compose Logo
docker-compose Logo by Docker
(Please don’t sue me, Docker.)

With curl we download the docker-compose binary, then we move docker-compose to your /usr/local/bin that is in your PATH and set the execute permission.

wget -O /usr/local/bin/docker-compose "https://github.com/docker/compose/releases/download/1.8.0/docker-compose-`uname -s`-`uname -m`"
sudo chmod +x /usr/local/bin/docker-compose

For more detailed docker-compose installation docs, see here.

After you have followed the commands above, you can test if you have installed docker-compose successfully by running docker-compose --version.

The recording below shows the expected output for the docker-compose installation and the installation test.

Expected Output

Clone the workshop repo

If you use the workshop VM, you can skip these steps.

Clone the Workshop repo from GitHub https://github.com/galexrt/workshop-docker.git. It’ll provide all files and tasks used in the Workshop.

git clone https://github.com/galexrt/workshop-docker.git

Expected Output


Running your first Docker containers

This will guide you through the commands needed to start your WordPress instance with MySQL database server.

Hello World!

When you have Docker installed correctly, you now have to add your user to the docker group (on most distributions the group is called docker).
To add your user to the docker group, you can run the following command:

gpasswd -a $USER docker

Please relog or restart your machine after you have added yourself to the group.

Now to test your Docker installation, we start like when learning a new programming language, with the simplest example. A “Hello World” container.
To run the “Hello World” container, you simply run the following command:

docker run hello-world

Example Output

When everything went correct, I can now welcome you to the big World of the containers!

Basic commands you need to know

One of the most important commands we need is docker run. So we now take a look at it and run:

docker run --help

Expected Output
docker run --help Output

As we can see docker run has a lot of options, to choose from.
In this workshop we are only covering some of basic options, you should know to begin with.

Docker run syntax
WDWD

  • [OPTIONS] - Run flags/options.
  • IMAGE - The name of a Docker image.
  • [COMMAND] [ARG ...] - Depending on the images, used as arguments or as the command by the entrypoint.

I’m going in depth about image names, command args and entrypoint later on (here).

Starting the MySQL database server

I’m going to use the MySQL Docker image from sameersbn in the workshop. Because this image is more convenient to setup, than the official available MySQL and MariaDB Docker image.
So we specify the IMAGE argument in our command now.

docker run \
sameersbn/mysql:latest

Let’s give it a name (BTW Can we keep it?)

How about Dogmeat? :D

Our MySQL database server container should have a name, so we don’t need to use the randomized name or unique ID.
Every container gets an unique ID and randomized name. We can override the name with the --name NAME option.
Let’s name it “database”.
Our command now looks like this:

docker run \
--name mysql \
sameersbn/mysql:latest

Giving a container a “simple” name, is important to simplify later processes, like connecting from the WordPress instance to the MySQL database server.

Does the container keep on running or do I need something like screen or what?!

The --detach and --interactive options.
If you now run the command to start the container, upon start you see some log output coming, but should notice that when closing the terminal, the database container immediately gets stopped/exits (To see if the container exited, use docker ps -a).
When you run a container, by default your current stdin and stdout will be attached to the container, making it interactive (If you want an interactive container, you should still add --interactive option). To disable the attachment of stdin and stdout add the --detach (or short -d) option to the command. Using the --detach (or -d) option, runs the container detached.

docker run \
-d \
--name mysql \
sameersbn/mysql:latest

Running a container detached is most common for containers with server or headless application, like Nginx, MySQL, etc.

Don’t forget to delete the exited/stopped MySQL database container with the remove command, docker rm database (where database is the name or ID of the container) else if starting you’ll get an error saying that a container already exists with the same name.
In case you already forgot, here’s how to delete the container

docker rm NAME

How would one configure the MySQL database server instance?

One big questions will be for you, “How can I configure the MySQL database server?” in the container.
You can..
A) use config files
or
B) use environment variables (portable and the best way).

The most portable way is to use environment variables.
Most containers that are configured through environment variables, have a script, the entrypoint, that sets config variables and a lot more, before the main application/program is started.

In the case of sameersbn/mysql:latest the following environment variables are used for basic configuration:

To specify an environment variable, the --env (or -e) option is used.

docker run \
[...]
-e 'DB_USER=wordpress' \
-e 'DB_PASS=wordpress' \
-e 'DB_NAME=wordpress' \
[...]

*sarcasm on* 100% secure passwords used here *sarcasm off*

Use secure passwords when running in production!
openssl rand -base64 20, can be used to generate a “secure” password.

How do I save the database outside the container?

You want to save your data outside of the container, for a simple reason: If you stop and delete the container, your data is gone. For this Docker has volumes.
A Volume is like a mount from the host system inside the container.
The volume option is --volume (or -v). The syntax of a volume option is for example:

docker run \
[...]
-v HOST_PATH:CONTAINER_PATH:MODE
[...]

WDWD

  • HOST_PATH - Path to mount from the host system inside the container.
  • CONTAINER_PATH - “Mount” destination path in the container.
  • :MODE - Is optional. Can be rw (read-write) or ro (read-only). Defaults to rw.

Please note

  • If the host path doesn’t exist it’ll get created.
  • The host path can be a file too.
  • Docker doesn’t distinguish between file or folder. If the path doesn’t exist, a directory always get’s created.

Running the MySQL database server container

Now we have all components, we need for running the MySQL container.

When we have put everything we learned now together, we should get something that looks like this:

docker run \
-d \
--name mysql \
-e 'DB_USER=wordpress' \
-e 'DB_PASS=wordpress' \
-e 'DB_NAME=wordpress' \
-v /opt/docker/wordpress/mysql:/var/lib/mysql \
sameersbn/mysql:latest

WDWD

  • -d - To run the container detached.
  • --name wordpress - Gives the container the name “wordpress”.
  • -e ...=... - Specifies environment variables, that are used for configuration.
  • -v /opt/docker/wordpress/mysql:/var/lib/mysql - Mount /opt/docker/wordpress/mysql directory at /var/lib/mysql into the container.
  • sameersbn/mysql:latest - Specifies what image to use.

If you run the run command with the --detach (or -d), it’ll just return the unique (long) ID of the container.
With docker logs CONTAINER (where CONTAINER is a container ID or name), you’ll get the logs of the first process in the container.

Starting the WordPress instance

So you now already know some “basics”, about starting containers. I’m not going in depth with every little thing anymore.

How can the WordPress container and the MySQL container communicate with each other?

In Docker by default all containers can talk to each other, if they know the IP address, that is called short ICC or Inter Container Communication (docker daemon [...] --icc=[true/false]).
To allow the WordPress container to contact the MySQL container, we would need to get the IP address of the MySQL container. You can use the docker inspect CONTAINER_OR_IMAGE (where CONTAINER_OR_IMAGE is the unique ID or name of a container), the command returns JSON formatted output with “all” informations about the given container(s) or image(s).

But to do this everytime the MySQL container get’s restarted, is too much work. That’s where Docker implements a mechanism called links.
As you might guess, with links, you can “link”/connect containers together. Keep in mind that with the above mentioned Docker daemon option --icc=true all containers can talk to each other, when knowing the IP address of another container.

The link option syntax is like this:

docker run \
[OPTIONS]
--link=CONTAINER_NAME:LINK_NAME \
[IMAGE]

WDWD

  • CONTAINER_NAME - The container to link.
  • LINK_NAME - The name of the “/etc/hosts” entry (aka “fake” DNS record).

If you link the MySQL container to the WordPress container, the WordPress container will get a special entry in it’s /etc/hosts about the MySQL container and “inherit” all of the MySQL containers environment variables prefixed with the link name.
For example the link option is --link=mysql:database.

So if we take a look at the /etc/hosts and environment variables inside the WordPress container, with the container link to the MySQL container, it should get much clearer how the “linking works”.
To show you the created /etc/hosts entry and the environment variables created inside the container.
I’m running the following command, to just demonstrate it:

docker run \
-d \
--name=wordpress \
--entrypoint=/bin/bash \
wordpress
cat /etc/hosts
env
exit # To exit the container
docker rm wordpress

WDWD

  • --entrypoint=/bin/bash - This overwrites the command executed, when the container is started.

Expected Output


(The output here may looks a bit different, due to small changes to the commands executed in the demo)

The environment variables are created inside the new container only, not in the link source! The container that is used as the link destination is left untouched.
beginning with DATABASE_, allow to get the environment variables and published ports from the linked container very simple.

Please note

  • There can be multiple links with the same name.
  • You can’t attach two same named links to the destination container (the container you are creating).

How can I reach the WordPress instance from the outside?

To make a port available to the “public”, that’s why it’s called publishing ports, you use the --publish (or -p) option in this format:

docker run \
[OPTIONS]
-p HOST_ADDRESS:HOST_PORT:CONTAINER_PORT/PROTOCOL
[IMAGE] [ARGUMENTS]

docker run \
[OPTIONS] \
-p 80:80/tcp \
[IMAGE] [ARGUMENTS]

WDWD

  • HOST_ADDRESS: - Optional. By default 0.0.0.0. Address to expose the port on the host system.
  • HOST_PORT - Host port to expose the container port on.
  • CONTAINER_PORT - Container port to expose.
  • /PROTOCOL - Optional. By default tcp. The port protocol, currently can be tcp or udp.

And that’s how you forward/publish ports from the container to the outside.

Running the WordPress instance container

To configure our WordPress container instance, the Docker image comes with extra environment variables.
The WordPress image name is wordpress (Docker Hub Page)

The possible environment variables for the configuration are the following ones:

In the case of the WORDPRESS_DB_HOST, the value would be the name of the link name in the docker run command below. In the case of the below command, the WORDPRESS_DB_HOST would be database.
The command to run the WordPress container is like this:

docker run \
-d \
--name wordpress \
-e 'WORDPRESS_DB_HOST=database' \
-e 'WORDPRESS_DB_USER=wordpress' \
-e 'WORDPRESS_DB_PASSWORD=wordpress' \
-e 'WORDPRESS_AUTH_KEY=wordpress' \
-e 'WORDPRESS_SECURE_AUTH_KEY=wordpress' \
-e 'WORDPRESS_LOGGED_IN_KEY=wordpress' \
-e 'WORDPRESS_NONCE_KEY=wordpress' \
-e 'WORDPRESS_AUTH_SALT=wordpress' \
-e 'WORDPRESS_SECURE_AUTH_SALT=wordpress' \
-e 'WORDPRESS_LOGGED_IN_SALT=wordpress' \
--link mysql:database \
-p 80:80 \
wordpress

WDWD

  • -d - To run the container detached.
  • --name wordpress - Gives the container the name “wordpress”.
  • -e ...=... - Specifies environment variables, that are used for configuration.
  • --link mysql:database - Creates a “link” named mysql, from the database container.
  • wordpress - Specifies what image to use.

Now execute the command and you should be able to see the WordPress installation screen at http://127.0.0.1:80/.

Please note All data inside the container, will be lost on removal of the container! In our case, we already use volumes, so don’t worry.

For cleanup you now stop and delete the container.
To stop the WordPress instance, run docker stop CONTAINER (where CONTAINER in this case is wordpress). After stopping the container, you can remove it with docker rm CONTAINER.
The container has to be stopped, before it can be removed.


Now that we looked into some of most important beginner topics of Docker, we are going to take a look deeper into these topics.


How do you execute a command/shell inside the container?

To execute a command inside the container, after it has been started, for example in the MySQL container for maintenance access.

With our example, MySQL container let’s display a list of the existing databases.
The command to display the databases from shell is:

mysql -u root -p -e "SHOW DATABASES;"

For this case, the command docker exec is used.
The syntax of docker exec is a bit equal to the of docker run. Running docker exec --help as always to show you the help/syntax menu.

Expected Output
docker exec --help Output

To run a command interactively for example opening an interactive MySQL shell session, the command would be:

docker exec \
-it \
CONTAINER \
mysql -u root -p

WDWD

  • -i - Attach the stdin aka interactive.
  • -t - Optional. Allocates a pseudo-TTY (pseudo TeleTYpewriter) to the shell/command run.
  • CONTAINER - Container ID or name of the container the command should be executed in.
  • mysql -u root -p - The command and arguments to execute.

You would use the --detach (or -d) option to run a non-interactive command in the background with no logs or return (Good for cron jobs ;)).

Please note

  • To be able to run a command in the container, the command/binary/file/whatever has to exist in the container!

Data, Data everywhere


Data Data everywhere Meme - Made with Imgur Memegen

Volumes aka Mounts

Volumes add persistence to your data. When a container is stopped and removed, the data in the container is lost.
With a volume you would mount the part of the data out of the container. For example with our MySQL container, we would mount the container path /var/lib/mysql/ (contains the MySQL databases) somewhere safe.
So if the MySQL server inside the container should ever crash and the container then be terminated, you can just fire up with the docker start command or delete the container and execute the docker run command again. The MySQL container then starts using the data where it exited.

I already showed the option, but here is it again (Long form --volume=):

docker run \
[OPTIONS]
-v HOST_PATH:CONTAINER_PATH:MODE
[IMAGE] [ARGUMENTS]

WDWD

  • HOST_PATH - Path to mount from the host system inside the container.
  • CONTAINER_PATH - “Mount” destination path in the container.
  • :MODE - Is optional. Can be rw (read-write) or ro (read-only). Defaults to rw.

TL;DR Data inside container to outside of container.

Please note

  • When the host path doesn’t exist, it’ll get created. BUT the permissions will be a bit “freaky”.
  • When the path get’s created on the host, the directory will be (by default) owned by root:root, mod perms drwxr-xr-x.
  • You can now create volumes using the Docker command, but I’m not going deeper into this. You can read more about this here.

Data containers aka --volumes-from

Please note

  • I do NOT recommend this method as I often enough “accidentally” clear all exited/dead containers, so my disk space doesn’t run out.
  • I also have cron jobs running on my servers, that clean exited containers. Meaning data containers would just get cleared out everytime.

You can store data inside another container, that’s called data volume containers.
When creating an image, you can specify those volumes. You create a container that has a volume “built-into” (Specified while the image was built), meaning that assuming it is our MySQL server image the in-built volume would be located at /var/lib/mysql
The data volume container runs “nothing”, it is just there for purpose of getting used by another container. For this you change the entrypoint with the following run option --entrypoint=COMMAND (where command could be just /bin/true) so the container stops and doesn’t run the program it should.

Now that we would have a data container, we can use the volumes from this container using the --volumes-from=CONTAINER (where CONTAINER is a container name or ID) option.

Let’s assume we have a data container, created from the example here, with the volume /data and we have a second container, running the same image, that would save the data to /data.
In this case using the --volumes-from option would write the data inside the first container, the data container.

As I wrote I personally don’t recommend and I’m not even using this method, as I find it bad.


Networking


Brace Yourself Network Stuff Incoming - Made using Imgur Memegen

NATing using iptables

I’m not going to explain NAT in depth.

NAT also Network Address Translation, allows multiple devices to sit behind one IP address.

Over seven bridges you must go (docker0 bridge and veth interfaces)

Docker creates a bridge that is used as a bridge to your network interfaces (eth0, en0, etc.). The bridge Docker creates is called docker0 by default.
By default the docker0 bridge will be assigned the 172.17.0.1/16 IP range as a network. This IP address range will be used, to assign every container a separate IP.
Sometimes the bridge address range needs to be adjusted, in most cases when you are running Docker in a corporate network or the network range is just already in use/allocated.
You would need to add the --bip=192.168.1.0/24 (where 192.168.1.0/24 is an unused IP range) to on Debian based systems to the /etc/default/docker or on RHEL based systems to the /etc/sysconfig/docker or /etc/sysconfig/docker-network.

When a container is created, a veth interface will be created too (depending on the network mode). The veth interface will have an unique name. veth stands for virtual ethernet device. The veth device will “connect” to the bridge, to acquire network connectivity. The veth interface will not show the ip address when using tools like ip addr show or ifconfig.

Example Output


This recording shows, the docker0 interface and the veth interface of the database container. In the end we use docker inspect CONTAINER to get the IPAddress of the container.

Docker has the feature to even create an overlay network, between multiple machines. But I’m not going deeper into this.
For people interested in this feature, see the Docker docs here (Docs Docker network create).

Network “modes” (“default”, host or other)

I’ve wrote, that I’m not going deeper into Docker’s own (overlay) network feature, but with this topic, I’ll have to go into it just a bit.

When running a container the default network “mode” is named default (--net=default). The default network “mode” creates a separate network stack for every container.

There is also the network “mode” host available by default. The host network “mode” gives the host network stack aka “full access to the network of the host system” inside the container.

The network “mode” can be also the name of an (overlay) network created using the Docker “client” (engine).

Example Output


In the recording, you can see that when using the default network mode you’ll get a “newly” created network stack and when using the host network mode, the container gets the hosts network stack.

Publishing ports

When using the default network mode, Docker creates iptables rules so published/forwarded ports are reachable from the outside.
In the example, we see the iptables rules for a container with published port 80/http.

Example Output
Example iptables list output

As we can see Docker uses a separate DOCKER chain in the FORWARD chain, to map incoming traffic on port 80 to the container IP.
After the destination IP has been changed, Docker uses DNAT (Destination Network Address Translation), to “map” the traffic to the container’s end address.

TASK network101

You can use the script show_me_dat_network.sh from task network101, to view your network interfaces and current iptables rules.

Looking into your network

TASK network101

Do you want to visualize your container network situation? Yes? Then the perfect tool for this is Weave Scope.

In the network101 task is a file called start_weave_scope.sh. The script downloads the Weave Scope wrapper script, that starts the containers needed for Weave Scope to function.
The commands that are used to download the Weave Scope wrapper script are:

sudo wget -O /usr/local/bin/scope https://git.io/scope
sudo chmod a+x /usr/local/bin/scope
sudo scope launch

After the image of the container has been pulled and started, you can then navigate to http://localhost:4040 to see the Weave Scope UI.

Expected Output
Weave Scope UI

Through the Weave Scope UI you gain an immersive insight into your network of the containers.


Limiting container resources


It's OK I know my limit - Meme
- said the rogue process

As I already mentioned in the Container!? part, namespaces are able to limit the resources available to processes, etc.

CPU Limit

Limiting the precious computing resource of a container.

$ docker run --help
[...]
--cpu-period Limit CPU CFS (Completely Fair Scheduler) period
--cpu-quota Limit CPU CFS (Completely Fair Scheduler) quota
--cpuset-cpus CPUs in which to allow execution (0-3, 0,1)
[...]

You can limit the time period and the quota of the CFS (Completely Fair Scheduler).
Limiting a container to specific cores is also possible (--cpuset-cpus).

Memory and Swap Limit

$ docker run --help
[...]
--cpuset-mems MEMs in which to allow execution (0-3, 0,1)
[...]
--kernel-memory Kernel memory limit
[...]
--memory-reservation Memory soft limit
--memory-swap Swap limit equal to memory plus swap: '-1' to enable unlimited swap
--memory-swappiness=-1 Tune container memory swappiness (0 to 100)
[...]
--oom-kill-disable Disable OOM Killer
--oom-score-adj Tune host's OOM preferences (-1000 to 1000)
[...]

As you can see, there is a good amount of option to play around with the memory a container can use and how it can use the memory.

A good feature if you have limited memory available is to play with the memory swappiness.

The OOM (Linux Out of Memory Management) options are good, if you have memory intensive applications, but only limited memory available. So important application container don’t get killed, when the system should run out of memory.


Selfies? I mean Images

An image is the core of a container. Without an image, there would be no container.
Creating images is simple to do, depending on what you try to “containerize”.
In this part we set a simple goal. Our goal is to create a container that runs nginx in it.

Image Names explained

Images that “come” from the Docker Image Hub, don’t need a repository specified.

The image we used for the MySQL container is:

sameersbn/mysql:latest

WDWD

  • sameersbn - The username of the creator.
  • mysql - The image name.
  • latest - The “version” tag. The tag can be anything, but emojis.

An example for an image that is pulled from a different image server, than the official Docker Hub, is my image for Zulip by Dropbox that is hosted on quay.io.

quay.io/galexrt/zulip:1.3.10
SERVER/USERNAME/IMAGE_NAME:TAG

WDWD

  • quay.io, SERVER - Defaults to docker.io. The image repository server to pull the image from.
  • galexrt, USERNAME - Username of the image creator/uploader.
  • zulip, IMAGE_NAME - Name of the image.
  • 1.3.10, TAG - Like git tags. When not specified, the default is latest.

In the case of official created images, like the WordPress image we used no server and username is required (by default).
Official images are “marked” through the “missing” username in the image name and the Docker Image Hub url having an underscore instead of an username (https\://hub.docker.com/r/_/wordpress/).

What have Layer Cakes to do with Docker Images?


Layer Cake from Wikimedia
Mhh, tasty, isn’t it? But now back to the topic.

TASK: dockerfile101

In the Docker universe, a Docker image is built from the bottom to the top like a cake, the bottom is a baseimage (or any other image as a base).
Every “new” layer on top of it, is an action that had been run when building the image.

Meaning if we create an image from the “baseimage” fedora:23 like the example Dockerfile, a cross-section/profile would look like this:


Docker Dockerfile Layers

That is one of the reasons, why Docker images are so small. If you download 10 images that are based on debian:jessie, you would only have to download the created/modified layers, because the baseimage is the same for these 10 images.
To build/create an image, you create a Dockerfile and that’s what we are going to talk about next.

Dockerfile examples

As you may have already seen in the task directory dockerfil101, there was a file called Dockerfile.
A Dockerfile contains build instructions for an image. For Dockerfiles there is a “special” syntax, but the syntax is very simple.
I’m going to show you a simple and a more advanced example of Dockerfiles.

Simple Dockerfile Example

Taken from the carazzim0/docker-ebot GitHub project, file Dockerfile.

FROM debian:jessie
ENV EBOT_HOME="/ebot" TIMEZONE="Europe/Berlin"
ADD entrypoint.sh /sbin/entrypoint.sh
RUN apt-get update && \
apt-get -y upgrade && \
apt-get clean && \
apt-get -y install nodejs npm curl git php5-cli php5-mysql screen git && \
apt-get clean && \
sed -i "s~;date.timezone =~date.timezone = $TIMEZONE~g" /etc/php5/cli/php.ini && \
/bin/ln -s /usr/bin/nodejs /usr/bin/node && \
curl -sS https://getcomposer.org/installer | php -- --install-dir=/usr/bin && \
mkdir "$EBOT_HOME" && \
git clone https://github.com/deStrO/eBot-CSGO.git "$EBOT_HOME" && \
cd "$EBOT_HOME" && \
git checkout "master" && \
/usr/bin/php /usr/bin/composer.phar install && \
npm install socket.io formidable archiver
COPY Match.php $EBOT_HOME/src/eBot/Match/Match.php
VOLUME ["$EBOT_HOME/demos", "$EBOT_HOME/logs"]
EXPOSE 12360 12361
ENTRYPOINT ["/sbin/entrypoint.sh"]

Advanced Dockerfile Example

Taken from the galexrt/docker-zulip GitHub project, file Dockerfile.

FROM quay.io/sameersbn/ubuntu:latest
MAINTAINER Alexander Trost <[email protected]>
ENV ZULIP_VERSION="master" DATA_DIR="/data"
ADD entrypoint.sh /sbin/entrypoint.sh
RUN apt-get -q update && \
apt-get -q dist-upgrade -y && \
apt-get install -y git && \
mkdir -p "$DATA_DIR" /root/zulip && \
git clone https://github.com/zulip/zulip.git /root/zulip && \
cd /root/zulip && \
git checkout "$ZULIP_VERSION" && \
rm -rf /root/zulip/.git
ADD custom_zulip_files/ /root/custom_zulip
RUN cp -rf /root/custom_zulip/* /root/zulip && \
VOYAGER_CLASS="dockervoyager" DEPLOYMENT_TYPE="dockervoyager" ADDITIONAL_PACKAGES="python-dev python-six python-pbs" \
/root/zulip/scripts/setup/install && \
wget -q https://www.zulip.com/dist/releases/zulip-server-latest.tar.gz -O /tmp/zulip-server.tar.gz && \
tar xfz /tmp/zulip-server.tar.gz -C "/home/zulip/prod-static" --strip-components=3 --wildcards */prod-static/serve && \
rm -rf /tmp/zulip-server.tar.gz && \
ln -nsf /home/zulip/deployments/current/prod-static/serve /home/zulip/prod-static && \
apt-get -qq autoremove --purge -y && \
apt-get -qq clean && \
rm -rf /root/zulip/puppet/ /var/lib/apt/lists/* /tmp/* /var/tmp/*
ADD setup_files/ /opt/files
ADD includes/supervisor/conf.d/zulip_postsetup.conf /etc/supervisor/conf.d/zulip_postsetup.conf
ADD includes/createZulipAdmin.sh /createZulipAdmin.sh
VOLUME ["$DATA_DIR"]
EXPOSE 80 443
ENTRYPOINT ["/sbin/entrypoint.sh"]
CMD ["app:run"]

Don’t worry we’re going to make a very simple and basic image. ;)

Understanding Dockerfiles

TASK: dockerfile202
TIP: If you have trouble writing a Dockerfile, check the Dockerfile Docs.

You will create an image with nginx installed (You can later expand it, with more functionality, like with PHP-FPM).

To guide you in creating a nginx image, I show you an example of a http webserver application written in golang, before you are going to create your own nginx image.

Golang Dockerfile Example: (Example taken from Shiju Varghese Medium Blog)

# golang image where workspace (GOPATH) configured at /go.
FROM golang:latest
# Copy the local package files to the container’s workspace.
ADD . /go/src/github.com/shijuvar/golang-docker
# Build the golang-docker command inside the container.
RUN go install github.com/shijuvar/golang-docker
# Run the golang-docker command when the container starts.
ENTRYPOINT ["/go/bin/golang-docker"]
# http server listens on port 8080.
EXPOSE 8080

WDWD:

  • FROM ... - Sets the baseimage.
  • COPY ... ... - Copy files from the build root.
  • ADD ... ... - Same as COPY, but target can be “online” and if it is an archive, it will be extracted.
  • RUN ... - Run commands (Shell used /bin/sh).
  • ENTRYPOINT ["..."] - The command to execute when the container is started.
  • CMD ["..."] - Arguments for the ENTRYPOINT.
  • EXPOSE 8080 ... - Expose a port when linked (If not specified port not reachable when linked!). To specify protocol just add a /tcp or /udp.

There’s even the possibility, to execute specific commands when the image is used as a base image, the base instruction is called ONBUILD ..., but explaining this is beyond the scope of this workshop. Thanks for understanding!

To build an image we use the docker build command. Building this golang example image, we run the following command:

docker build -t golang-docker -f Dockerfile .

WDWD:

  • build - Used to build Docker images.
  • -t IMAGE_NAME - Specify the name (with an optional tag) of the image, you are creating (Optional. Please note This options is important when manually building and pushing a Docker image to a repository). IMAGE_NAME is a string name for the image with an optional tag specified. The tag is added by adding double dots like this :TAG_NAME.
  • -f DOCKERFILE - Set the location of the Dockerfile (Optional).
  • . - The image build root of the image build (Important when ADD or COPY is used in the Dockerfile). All files will be at least added to the build environment for easy access, but not added to the image itself.

As you can see, it isn’t hard to build your first Docker images.
If you want to see more advanced examples, you can find more examples in my GitHub repositories here.

Commands you need to know when working with Docker images

Deleting a Docker image

To delete a Docker image, you use the docker rmi subcommand. The syntax is the same as for the docker rm subcommand.

docker rmi IMAGE [IMAGE...]

WDWD

  • rmi - The subcommand for deleting one or more image(s).
  • IMAGE [IMAGE...] - One or more image names or IDs to delete.

Build a Docker image from Dockerfile

Use this command to build images.

docker build -t IMAGE_NAME -f DOCKERFILE BUILD_PATH

WDWD

  • build - The build subcommand.
  • -t IMAGE_NAME - More details to IMAGE_NAME are going to be explained in a later section, here or see above WDWD part.
  • DOCKERFILE - Path to a Dockerfile. Defaults to the current work directory with Dockerfile attached as a file name.
  • BUILD_PATH - The build root path. Files in the directory will be added to the Docker build environment, but not to the image itself. The files are only added when the specified Dockerfile has instructions to do so. You can’t go deeper than the BUILD_PATH!

Let’s build your first Docker image

Now that we know some Dockerfile basics, we can start building our own nginx image from the baseimage debian:jessie.

Let’s make this like a test in the school, replace all __BLANK__ with the correct answer (Solutions are here):

FROM __BLANK__
RUN __BLANK__
ENTRYPOINT ["__BLANK__"]

Got all blanks filled out? Good. Let’s build the image:

docker build -t workshop-nginx .

Expected Output of docker build -t workshop-nginx .
Docker Build workshop-nginx image

The build should go successfully, when you filled in the blanks correctly. Let’s run the image to see if it is working, the container name will be workshop-nginx:

docker run \
--name workshop-nginx \
-d \
-p 80:80 \
workshop-nginx

If you did something wrong, remove the container using (where CONTAINER_NAME is a container ID or name):

docker rm CONTAINER_NAME

To check if the container is running with your image, run docker ps -a.

WDWD:

  • ps - Like the ps command, but for the containers.
  • -a - Show all containers, whether their current state, without it showing only running containers.

You should see that the container you started, has exited.
There’s a simple reason, why the container exited/stopped. When running a command as the entrypoint, it has to stay running, not fork to background. When the process forks to background, Docker will think the process has stopped and the container status will be set to exited with the last return code.

That’s why we need to tell nginx, not to run as a daemon, not fork to background, with the following additional arguments "-g", "daemon off;" (these arguments must be added to the ENTRYPOINT line of the Dockerfile).

So we could make a change to the nginx.conf, overwrite nginx.conf with a custom one or just change the ENTRYPOINT line to make it look like this:

ENTRYPOINT ["nginx", "-g", "daemon off;"]

Let’s rebuild the image (same command) and run it again. Open http://127.0.0.1:8080 in your browser and voilà it should show the nginx default page.

To go further with your created image, let’s “mount” a volume inside the container with our own index.html.
Use the index.html from task dockerfile202 or create one yourself.

Now we add a volume to the container. Add -v "$(pwd)":"/usr/share/nginx/html" to the docker run command, but don’t forget add the argument before the image name.
Your command should look like this:

docker run \
--name workshop-nginx \
-d \
-p 8080:80 \
-v "$(pwd)":"/usr/share/nginx/html" \
workshop-nginx

This starts a container named workshop-nginx running the image workshop-nginx with a volume mounted at /usr/share/nginx/html.
If we now open http://127.0.0.1:8080 in the browser, we will see our index.html. Well done!

How can this help in the development workflow?

If you are for example creating a new CMS written in PHP you could, create a Docker image for it.
On every push to the git repository of the project, the image could be built and automatic checks could be run, to ensure every feature is working fine.

For example Travis-CI has switched big parts of their build infrastructure to Docker containers.
Quoting Travis-CI some headings from their blog post:

Builds start in seconds
Faster builds
More available resources in a build container
Better network capacity, availability and throughput
Easier to scale

As we can see, containers are better than VMs (depending on the application area).

The lower resource usage is good for the development workflow, making it faster and cheaper.


Composing containers made simple with docker-compose

Making multi container applications simpler to start

To remove the process of typing all those commands to start the containers, docker-compose has been created.
docker-compose makes it easy peasy lemon squeezy to run one to many containers using one command.
The syntax of a docker-compose.yml is YAML (YAML Ain’t Markup Language). A good syntax checker, I use, is available here.

In our example with WordPress we will create a docker-compose.yml for our MySQL database server, WordPress instance and as an extra we’ll add phpMyAdmin to it.

Create the docker-compose.yml file. I made this part like a test again, so you can see where you have knowledge holes, replace all __BLANK__ with the correct answer (Solutions are here):
(This docker-compose.yml has been taken from https://www.digitalocean.com/community/tutorials/how-to-install-wordpress-and-phpmyadmin-with-docker-compose-on-ubuntu-14-04)

database:
image: sameersbn/mysql:latest
environment:
DB_NAME: wordpress
DB_USER: wordpress
DB_PASS: wordpress
DB_REMOTE_ROOT_NAME: root
DB_REMOTE_ROOT_PASS: workshop
volumes:
- "/opt/docker/database:/var/lib/mysql:rw"
# wordpress image configuration see https://hub.docker.com/r/_/wordpress/
wordpress:
image: wordpress
links:
- __BLANK__:mysql
ports:
- 8080:80
environment:
WORDPRESS_DB_HOST: __BLANK__:3306
WORDPRESS_DB_NAME: __BLANK__
WORDPRESS_DB_USER: __BLANK__
WORDPRESS_DB_PASSWORD: __BLANK__
WORDPRESS_AUTH_KEY: SECURE_AUTH_KEY
WORDPRESS_LOGGED_IN_KEY: SECURE_LOGGED_IN_KEY
WORDPRESS_AUTH_SALT: SECURE_AUTH_SALT
WORDPRESS_LOGGED_IN_SALT: SECURE_LOGGED_IN_SALT
# phpmyadmin image configuration see https://hub.docker.com/r/phpmyadmin/phpmyadmin/
phpmyadmin:
image: phpmyadmin/phpmyadmin
links:
- mysql:database
ports:
- 8181:80
environment:
PMA_HOST: mysql
PMA_USER: root
PMA_PASSWORD: workshop

WDWD:

  • database: - Name of the container.
  • image: - Defines the used image for the container.
  • links: [] - A list of container links.
  • ports: [] - A list of published ports.
  • environment: [] - “Hash” list of environment variables (Format: NAME: VALUE).

I have also added the environment variables DB_REMOTE_ROOT_NAME and DB_REMOTE_ROOT_PASS, so that Admin can access the MySQL server.

Starting our multi container applications with one command

TASK: compose101

To “run”/start the content of our docker-compose.yml, we run:

docker-compose -f DOCKER_COMPOSE_YML up

WDWD:

  • docker-compose - The docker-compose command.
  • -f DOCKER_COMPOSE_YML - Optional. Defaults to docker-compose.yml. DOCKER_COMPOSE_YML is a path to a valid docker-compose file.
  • up - Starts the containers defined in the given docker-compose file.
    Expected Output

After running the command, you should see log output starting to fill your terminal. To stop the started containers press CTRL+C.
For running the containers detached in the background, you use the same option as for Docker, the --detach (or -d) option.

Basic docker-compose commands

There are some docker-compose commands you should know when working with the docker-compose command.

Stopping all containers run by the current docker-compose file

Instead of the up, you just put stop there. Stops the containers from the current docker-compose file.

docker-compose stop -t TIMEOUT

WDWD

  • stop - Stop subcommand.
  • -t TIMEOUT - Optional. Timeout to wait for the containers, before the containers get killed.

Deleting all containers run by the current docker-compose file

Replacing the up with rm, deletes all containers that are started by the current docker-compose file, but now are stopped or exited.

docker-compose -f DOCKER_COMPOSE_YML rm -f

WDWD

  • rm - “Subcommand” for removing/deleting all container started by the current selected docker-compose file.
  • -f - Optional. Forces the removal of the containers.

Restarting all container started by the current docker-compose file

Restarts all containers that are started or have exited by the current docker-compose file.
This just stops and starts the containers again and not stops, deletes and runs the containers again.

docker-compose -f DOCKER_COMPOSE_YML restart

WDWD

  • restart - “Subcommand” for removing/deleting all container started by the current selected docker-compose file.

Let’s play more with docker-compose!

TASK: compose202
The task contains other docker-compose.ymls for you to play around with. Look at the docker-compose.ymls and start them.
Just play around with docker-compose a bit.
TIP: Keep the -f DOCKERFILE option in mind, when dealing with multiple docker-compose.yml‘s in one folder.

Summary of these sections

We can now write basic docker-compose.ymls. We can now start a multi container application with one single command.


Orchestration Tools

The right tool for the right workload. Keep that in mind or you’ll have problems soon.

A wild Docker Swarm appeared. Kubernetes used rolling-update. It was very effective.

The choice of the orchestration tool, depends on many factors

My favorite choice is Kubernetes, easy to use, developed by Google (one of the largest and longest container users) and now with the latest updates, can scale up to 1000+ nodes.
I like Kubernetes more, because it offers a rolling-update feature. Allowing you to update your application Pod by Pod.

That’s not the only reason, but one of the biggest why.

Other Orchestration Tools


Kubessar - Glossar but for Kubernetes

Like a glossar, but for Kubernetes stuff.

I highly recommend you to look through my Kubernetes presentation to get to know Kubernetes a bit better, before starting to work with it.
Please note, that the presentation is written in german.

Namespace

Separation of resources. Allowing for quotas per namespace.
When not specifying a namespace, the default namespace will be used.

Pod (po)

A set of one or more containers.

Replication Controller (rc)

A ReplicationController ensures that there are always the specific number of replica of a given Pod.

Service (svc)

Exposed ports of one or multiple pods. The access to the port(s) is “loadbalanced” using iptables.
A service also creates a A and SRV DNS record, when using the kubedns Pod.

Other “Objects”


Kubernetes


Kubernetes Logo
Kubernetes Logo by Google
(Please don’t sue me, Google.)

Kubernetes Features

The iptables rules will blow your mind

If you have already worked with the basics of iptables, this will blow your mind, a lot more is possible with iptables than you thought.

You have some Network Volumes?

No problem, Kubernetes allows you to specify volumes that are network volumes and mount them by a simple name.
You could even use the volume claim system. Where a Pod just says, I need X GB storage and Kubernetes does the rest for you.

(As long as the specific mount binaries are installed on every server, this will work with no problems)

And there are even more features!

kubectl - Our tool to deploy them all


Kubernetes Zelda - It's dangerous to go alone
Zelda Meme intensifies

The Basics of kubectl

The kubectl command is used to create new “objects”, view Pods, ReplicationController and all other available objects in Kubernetes.

List objects

To view all Pods in all namespaces.

kubectl get --all-namespaces pods

WDWD:

  • kubectl - The kubectl command.
  • get - Get “objects” from kubernetes API.
  • --all-namespaces - Show objects from all namespaces.
  • pods - Show only pods (Can be a comma seperated list of types, short forms are available).

Gather information about one or more object(s)

Get informations about one or more object(s).

kubectl describe --namespace=NAMESPACE TYPE/NAME (TYPE/NAME ...)

WDWD:

  • describe - Call the describe routines.
  • --namespace=NAMESPACE - Set namespace to search in (optional when set through kubeconfig file).
  • TYPE - The type of objects to show. For example pod, rc (for replication controller).
  • NAME - Name of the object to show. For our WordPress Pod, would be wordpress.

Create one or more object(s)

To deploy/execute a “kubectl” file, we use the create subcommand.

kubectl create -f FILE_NAME

WDWD:

  • create - Creates an object.
  • -f FILE_NAME - Can be one file, a directory or - for stdin. When a directory is specified, files are read in alphabetical order.

Delete one or more object(s)

To stop/delete one or more object(s), there’s the delete subcommand.

kubectl delete -f FILE_NAME

WDWD:

  • delete - Deletes specified object(s).
  • -f FILE_NAME - Can be one file, a directory or - for stdin. When a directory is specified, files are read in alphabetical order.

Or

kubectl delete TYPE/NAME (TYPE/NAME ...)

WDWD:

  • delete - Deletes specified object(s).
  • TYPE - The type of objects to show. For example pod, rc (for replication controller).
  • NAME - Name of the object to show. For our WordPress Pod, would be wordpress.

Execute command inside a Pod’s container

Using the exec subcommand, with almost the same syntax as docker exec.

kubectl exec POD_NAME OPTIONS (-c CONTAINER_NAME) COMMAND

WDWD:

  • exec - Deletes specified object(s).
  • NAME - Name of the object to show. For our WordPress Pod, would be wordpress.
  • OPTIONS - For example -i for interactive, see the help menu for more information.
  • -c CONTAINER_NAME - Optional. If the specified pod has more than one container, then it is required.
  • COMMAND - The command to run inside the container.

View the logs of a Pod’s container

The logs subcommand, has almost the same syntax as docker logs.

kubectl logs OPTIONS POD_NAME (-c CONTAINER_NAME) COMMAND

WDWD:

  • exec - Deletes specified object(s).
  • OPTIONS - For example -f for follow the output, see the help menu for more information.
  • NAME - Name of the object to show. For our WordPress Pod, would be wordpress.
  • -c CONTAINER_NAME - Optional. If the specified pod has more than one container, then it is required.

Advanced kubectl usage

Update the Pods of a Replication Controller during runtime

The rolling-update subcommand allows to stop one pod after another and replace it with a new instace of the pod.

kubectl rolling-update REPLICATION -f FILE_NAME

WDWD:

  • rolling-update - Rolling update subcommand.
  • REPLICATION - The ReplicationController to update with the given FILE_NAME.
  • -f FILE_NAME - Name of the updated ReplicationController file. Can be one file, a directory or - for stdin. When a directory is specified, files are read in alphabetical order.

Scaling running Replication Controller

The scale subcommand gives you control over the size of running ReplicationController.

kubectl scale

WDWD:

  • scale - Scale subcommand.
  • --replicas=X - Set the given ReplicationController to X replicas.
  • -f FILE_NAME or replicationcontrollers FOO - Name of the ReplicationController to scale. Can be just the name or one file, a directory or - for stdin. When a directory is specified, files are read in alphabetical order.

Deploy your own Kubernetes cluster

Follow these simple steps and get a Kubernetes cluster up and running fast.

Install Ansible

If you use the provided Virtual Box, this step is not needed!

The package python-netaddr also needs to be installed on the client. Don’t forget to install it!!

Please refer to the official Ansible Installation Docs on how to install Ansible on your machine.

For ArchLinux: Ansible Docs
For Debian: Ansible Docs
For CentOS: Ansible Docs

Create the cluster inventory file for the deployment

TASK: kubernetes202

Enter the task directory and look for a directory called ansible/.

Create a file called inventory, in this folder. This file will contain the list/inventory of the servers.
You create one line per server in the format below (username and password are valid for the provided vm, change to suit your environment):

[masters]
# In most cases the first "server"
SERVER_IP_ADDRESS:SSH_PORT ansible_user=docker ansible_ssh_pass=docker ansible_become_pass=docker
[etcd]
#Add all the node servers here
SERVER_IP_ADDRESS:SSH_PORT ansible_user=docker ansible_ssh_pass=docker ansible_become_pass=docker
[...]
SERVER_IP_ADDRESS:SSH_PORT ansible_user=docker ansible_ssh_pass=docker ansible_become_pass=docker
[nodes]
# This can include the master server and the etcd servers too
SERVER_IP_ADDRESS:SSH_PORT ansible_user=workshop ansible_ssh_pass=workshop ansible_become_pass=workshop
[...]
SERVER_IP_ADDRESS:SSH_PORT ansible_user=workshop ansible_ssh_pass=workshop ansible_become_pass=workshop

WDWD:

  • [GROUP_NAME] - Specifies a server/inventory group.
  • SERVER_IP_ADDRESS:SSH_PORT - SSH_PORT is optional. A hostname or ip address the server is reachable.
  • ansible_user - Specifies the SSH username to login with.
  • ansible_ssh_pass - SSH user password.
  • ansible_become_pass - The sudo (default) password.

If you have created your inventory properly, run ./setup.sh --syntax-check to check for any syntax errors.

No syntax errors? Let’s deploy the cluster!

Deploying the Kubernetes cluster

TASK: kubernetes202
The servers must have the python and python-netaddr package installed!

Before you continue, enter the task kubernetes202 directory. Execute the bash prepare.sh script. The script will download and setup all files required for the deployment of the cluster.
If the script exits with an error, please get in touch with me (It should normally not exit with an error).

Go into the kubernetes/contrib/ansible directory and execute the ./setup.sh with the following argument -vvvv (-vvvv is for verbose output), this will setup Kubernetes on the machines in the inventory.

When you have done everything correct, it should go through without any errors.

After the deployment, please wait up to 10 minutes before continuing.
This waiting time is for giving the Kubernetes cluster some time to download all required images and start all kube-system containers.
If you want to be 100% safe, wait up to 15 minutes. Thanks!

After you have waited some time, please power cycle server after server.

Summary of the Kubernetes deployment

We now have a working Kubernetes cluster (DON’T use this setup in production though! There is more work required to make it secure for production use.).

We are now ready to deploy objects/containers on to our Kubernetes cluster. :)

Test the Kubernetes cluster health

TASK: kubernetes101

In the task kubernetes101 directory is a file called busybox.yaml. We will now deploy this file onto our cluster.
The file looks like this:

apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
name: busybox
namespace: default
spec:
containers:
- image: busybox
command:
- sleep
- "3600"
imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
name: busybox
restartPolicy: Always

The syntax of a “kubectl” file, is similar to the syntax of docker-compose files. It should get clear when you look at some other examples.

Connect to the Kubernetes master server. Create the busybox container by running the busybox.yaml file, wait some seconds and then run the following command:

kubectl exec busybox -- nslookup kubernetes

The output should look like this:

Example Output

If the output shows an error, something went wrong, please contact me.

No errors? Good move on to the next section.

Take a look at the pre-installed kube-system containers

Open a ssh tunnel, to the Kubernetes master:

ssh -L 8080:127.0.0.1:8080 -fN SERVER_IP_ADDRESS_HERE

Open your browser and navigate to http://127.0.0.1:8080/.
Welcome to the Kubernetes API!

Please note You can close the ssh tunnel, by simply killing the ssh tunnel process.
You can find it using ps ax

Kubernetes own Dashboard

Navigate to http://127.0.0.1:8080/ui and look around in the dashboard.

Example Output
Kubernetes Dashboard UI Example
In the above picture, I have already some ReplicationController running on the cluster.

Kubernetes Dashboard kube-dns RC overview
The above picture shows the overview page of the kube-dns-v11 replication controller in the kube-system namespace.

Just navigate around in the dashboard and see for yourself what you can do.

Monitoring the nodes and containers (with Heapster and Grafana)

Navigate to http://127.0.0.1:8080/api/v1/proxy/namespaces/kube-system/services/monitoring-grafana/.

Kubernetes Grafana Cluster Node01 Overview
Overview over the first workshop node usage.


Kubernetes Grafana Pods kube-dns Overview
Overview over Pod monitoring-influxdb-grafana in namespace kube-system.

Basic monitoring of the cluster nodes, out of the box.
You can see data for your cluster nodes, down to every single Pod.

Grafana may not work from the begining, but you can easily fix this by changing the data source to type direct and the url to:

http://127.0.0.1:8080/api/v1/proxy/namespaces/kube-system/services/monitoring-influxdb:api/

All Container logs in one place with an ELK stack

Navigate to http://127.0.0.1:8080/api/v1/proxy/namespaces/kube-system/services/kibana-logging/.

After you have created the default index in the formular, you should see the Kibana interface.

Kubernetes Kibana Logs
The “homepage” of the Kibana running on top of your Kubernetes cluster.
Please note It could happen, that the Kibana is a bit slow, that is just because you are not running on real server hardware or fast VM hosts.

You can try searching for specific logs or create visualizations.


Deployments with Kubernetes

The kubectl utility allows us to create objects, in this section I’m going to cover how you can create “deployment” files for Kubernetes objects.

BusyBox Pod Example

TASK: kubernetes303

You have already seen this example, but here again with explanations:

apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
name: busybox
namespace: default
spec:
containers:
- image: busybox
command:
- sleep
- "3600"
imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
name: busybox
restartPolicy: Always

WDWD

  • apiVersion: v1 - Sets the API version to use.
  • kind: Pod - Sets the type/kind of the “obejct”.
  • metadata: [] - A list of metadata information, like what name or namespace to use.
  • spec: [] - A list of “specifications”. In this case containing a list of containers.
  • Container part see below.
  • restartPolicy: Always - Restart policy. In this case the pod always restarts, until deleted.
- image: busybox
command:
- sleep
- "3600"
imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
name: busybox

WDWD

  • - image: busybox - Use the busybox image. The - (minus) begins the list entry.
  • command: [] - The command to run in the container (not the entrypoint).
  • imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent - The image pull policy.
  • name: busybox - The name of the container of the pod.

Somethings are very different to docker-compose.ymls, but if you know the basic syntax differences you should be good to go.

WordPress and MySQL Pod Example

See the file wordpress-mysql/wordpress-mysql-all-in-one.yaml.
This code block only contains the pods, not the services.

apiVersion: v1
# Service object
kind: Service
metadata:
labels:
name: mysql
name: mysql
spec:
ports:
# the port that this service should serve on
- port: 3306
# label keys and values that must match in order to receive traffic for this service
selector:
# select pods with the name "mysql"
name: mysql
---
# Kubernetes API version
apiVersion: v1
# Type of "request" in this case a Pod
kind: Pod
# Metadata of the "object"
metadata:
# Name of the "object"
name: mysql
# Labels of the "object"
labels:
# A lable named "name" with value "mysql"
name: mysql
# spec ~= Specificationsof the "object"
spec:
# List of Container definitions
containers:
# The "name"/"suffix" of the container name
- name: mysql
# What Docker image to use
image: sameersbn/mysql:latest
env:
- name: DB_NAME
value: wordpress
- name: DB_USER
value: wordpress
- name: DB_PASS
value: wordpress
# List of container ports reachable from within the cluster
ports:
- containerPort: 3306
name: mysql
---
apiVersion: v1
# Service object
kind: Service
metadata:
# labels for the service
labels:
name: wordpress
# name of the service
name: wordpress
spec:
ports:
# the port that this service should serve on
- port: 80
# label keys and values that must match in order to receive traffic for this service
selector:
# select pods with the name "wordpress"
name: wordpress
---
# Kubernetes API version
apiVersion: v1
# Type of "request"
kind: Pod
# Metadata of the "object"
metadata:
# Name of the "object"
name: wordpress
# Labels of the "object"
labels:
# A lable named "name" with value "wordpress"
name: wordpress
# spec ~= Specifications of the "object"
spec:
# List of Container definitions
containers:
# What Docker image to use
- image: wordpress
# The "name"/"suffix" of the container name
name: wordpress
# List of environment variables
env:
- name: WORDPRESS_DB_HOST
value: mysql.default:3306
- name: WORDPRESS_DB_NAME
value: wordpress
- name: WORDPRESS_DB_USER
value: wordpress
- name: WORDPRESS_DB_PASSWORD
value: wordpress
- name: WORDPRESS_AUTH_KEY
value: SECURE_AUTH_KEY
- name: WORDPRESS_LOGGED_IN_KEY
value: SECURE_LOGGED_IN_KEY
- name: WORDPRESS_AUTH_SALT
value: SECURE_AUTH_SALT
- name: WORDPRESS_LOGGED_IN_SALT
value: SECURE_LOGGED_IN_SALT
# List of ports to "publish"
ports:
# ContainerPort exposes only to the inside of your network, not to the outside
# To reach the container we create a cluster wide service
- containerPort: 80
# gives the port a name
name: wordpress

You can see that the syntax is similar to the syntax of docker-compose. It has it’s differences, for example the environment variables, but all in all it is similar.
The big difference to docker-compose is that there is more around the container “defintions”. In docker-compose we “only” have containers, no services, replication controller and other objects.


Your turn, let’s deploy the Guestbook application

Run the Guestbook

TASK: kubernetes303

Enter the guestbook/ directory and kubectl create/“run” the guestbook-all-in-one.yaml file.
For the forgetful, this is how you create/“run” the file:

kubectl create -f guestbook-all-in-one.yaml

Expected Output

This will start all services and replication controller that are required by the guestbook application.

Test the Guestbook

To reach the guestbook, navigate to http://127.0.0.1:8080/api/v1/proxy/namespaces/default/services/frontend.

Kubernetes Guesbook App
The guestbook app just started, so there are no entries yet.
Kubernetes Guesbook App with some example entries
Now with some entries added.

Now add some entries on your own, then move on to the next section.

Shutdown one node

Please shutdown one node only, if you have less than five nodes. Thanks!
And don’t shutdown the master server, without a replicated master setup not much will work then.

Et voilà, the application is still up, running and reachable. Kubernetes is going to create new instances of the lost containers from the node.

Best would be to just reboot and not shutdown the server/VM. Kubernetes has no problem restarting the containers on other servers, but when running with low resources it is the best to keep the “downtime” low.

Write your own “deployment files”

As you have already seen some Kubernetes “deployment” files in this Deployments with Kubernetes section. We are now going deeper into this topic. To be exact we are now writing our own Kubernetes “deployment” files.

WordPress + MySQL - WIP

Details about a deploying WordPress with MySQL to Kubernetes can be found here: https://github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes/tree/release-1.4/examples/mysql-wordpress-pd

Please note: The link above uses PDs too. Replace the part with the PDs with hostdirs.

Have fun with your Kubernetes cluster!

Now you can continue to play around with your Kubernetes cluster. Deploy other applications, if you need help please contact me.

If you want to stop the Kubernetes cluster, please stop all nodes at the same time! Not stopping them at the same time, causes the services required to run the cluster to desync and causes fatal errors.


The End

If you are reading this, you have made it to the end. Well done, sir or madame! Have a cookie on my cap.


Here is a Cookie - From Memegen

Solutions for “Tests”

nginx Dockerfile

FROM debian:jessie
RUN apt-get update && apt-get install -y nginx
ENTRYPOINT ["nginx"]

WordPress and MySQL docker-compose.yml

# Taken from https://www.digitalocean.com/community/tutorials/how-to-install-wordpress-and-phpmyadmin-with-docker-compose-on-ubuntu-14-04
database:
image: sameersbn/mysql:latest
environment:
DB_NAME: wordpress
DB_USER: wordpress
DB_PASS: wordpress
volumes:
- "/opt/docker/database:/var/lib/mysql:rw"
wordpress:
image: wordpress
links:
- mysql:database
ports:
- 8080:80
environment:
WORDPRESS_DB_HOST: mysql:3306
WORDPRESS_DB_NAME: wordpress
WORDPRESS_DB_USER: wordpress
WORDPRESS_DB_PASSWORD: wordpress
WORDPRESS_AUTH_KEY: SECURE_AUTH_KEY
WORDPRESS_LOGGED_IN_KEY: SECURE_LOGGED_IN_KEY
WORDPRESS_AUTH_SALT: SECURE_AUTH_SALT
WORDPRESS_LOGGED_IN_SALT: SECURE_LOGGED_IN_SALT
phpmyadmin:
image: phpmyadmin/phpmyadmin
links:
- mysql:database
ports:
- 8181:80
environment:
PMA_HOST: mysql
PMA_USER: root
PMA_PASSWORD: workshop